California Preschool Learning Foundations - Child Development (CA Dept of Education) (2024)

  • How many foundations publications are there? What domains of development do they cover?

    There are 3 volumes of the preschool foundations, covering 9 domains. The California Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume One covers Social-Emotional Development, Language and Literacy, English-Language Development, and Mathematics. The California Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 2 covers Visual and Performing Arts, Physical Development, and Health. The California Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 3 covers the domains of History-Social Science and Science.

  • Which children are addressed by the preschool learning foundations?

    The preschool learning foundations define age-appropriate expectations about what children should know and be able to do at around 48 and 60 months of age. These ages are meant to describe children at the end of their first and second year of preschool. The preschool foundations include research-based approaches aimed at all preschool children, including dual language learners and children with disabilities or other special needs. Based on current research and evidence about preschool children’s development, they describe the wide range of knowledge and skills that all preschool children typically attain in high-quality preschool programs.

  • Why are the foundations organized by age rather than along a continuum across ages three, four, and five?

    The preschool foundations focus on 48 and 60 months of age because they correspond to the end of the first and second years of enrollment in preschool. It is essential for teachers and parents to understand what children should know and be able to do at specific ages so that they can provide appropriate support. English learners enter preschool with different levels of experience with English, as well as with varying skills with their primary languages. The English–language development foundations describe what children typically demonstrate at three different levels of successive English-language development: beginning, middle, and later. Each of the foundations describes the competencies—knowledge and skills—that all preschool children typically attain in high-quality preschool programs. In addition, teachers need to know where each child is on a continuum of learning throughout the child’s time in preschool.

  • Who was involved in the development of the California Preschool Learning Foundations?

    Early childhood education researchers, college faculty, program directors, site supervisors, teachers, and other stakeholders were involved in the process of developing and reviewing each volume of the foundations. Each publication of the foundations was developed over the course of several years using an inclusive and deliberative input process, including many statewide stakeholder meetings, public input sessions, public hearings, and public comment through the California Department of Education's (CDE) Web site. Input from the various review opportunities was considered and incorporated as appropriate. For a complete list of those involved in the development of the foundations, please refer to the Acknowledgments pages in the front of each volume of the foundations.

  • How will teachers, families, and directors obtain training on the foundations?

    The California Department of Education’s Early Learning and Care Division (ELCD) sponsors a variety of training opportunities aimed at a variety of early childhood professionals.

    For teachers and administrators working in programs with preschool-aged children, the California Preschool Instructional Network (CPIN) provides in depth training on all nine domains of the foundations and framework as well as onsite technical assistance. Information sessions, trainings, and other professional development opportunities provide an overview of what the foundations are, and also more focused training on specific foundation domains and practical application in early learning settings. For program directors, preschool teachers, and family child care providers, check with the California Preschool Instructional Network (CPIN) California Preschool Learning Foundations - Child Development (CA Dept of Education) (1) to find the professional development opportunities in your area.

    For specific training for family child care home providers, check with the Placer County Office of Education about their Family Child Care at Its Best Program .

    California Early Childhood Online (CECO) California Preschool Learning Foundations - Child Development (CA Dept of Education) (3) provides free, easy-to-use online modules that provide an overview of all nine domains found in the preschool foundations.

    Families now have access to knowledge of the preschool foundations through the All About Young Children websiteCalifornia Preschool Learning Foundations - Child Development (CA Dept of Education) (4). Information is available in 8 languages.

  • When will the preschool learning foundations be required?

    The preschool learning foundations are not required in the same sense to which K-12 standards are. They have been developed to inform the early childhood field about the knowledge and skills that young children are expected to display with appropriate support. Training opportunities allow educators to consider how knowledge of the foundations will inform their curriculum planning for groups of children and individuals and affect their setting's learning environments. The Desired Results Developmental Profile© (DRDP) Preschool 2010 (DRDP–PS 2010) and DRDP (2015), the child observational assessment tool, is aligned with the California Preschool Learning Foundations. California State Preschool Programs are required to use this foundations-aligned instrument.

  • How does the Desired Results Developmental Profile© relate to the foundations?

    The California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations and the California Preschool Learning Foundations, Volumes 1-3, provide early childhood educators, parents, and the public with a clear understanding of the wide range of knowledge and skills that preschool children typically attain after the first and second year of participation in a high-quality preschool setting. The DRDP (2015) is a child observational assessment tool that is aligned with the California Infant/Toddler and Preschool Learning Foundations. The DRDP provides teachers with a means to assess children’s learning along a continuum of developmental levels. The foundations and the DRDP are used together to plan the environment, play, learning activities, and instruction to meet the needs of the children and provide high-quality experiences. DRDP (2015) provides measures for dual–language learners and for children with special needs.

  • Are the preschool learning foundations and frameworks part of the Federal Program Monitoring/Contract Monitoring Review process?

    The Federal Program Monitoring/Contract Monitoring Review (FPM/CMR) process uses the foundations-aligned DRDP-2010.

  • How does the state monitor its funded programs to determine if programs are appropriately applying the content of the foundations and framework, ensuring ongoing program improvement?

    The ELCD will continue to monitor programs through the use of the FPM/CMR system. Programs can track children’s developmental progress by utilizing the Desired Results Developmental Profile (DRDP 2010).

  • What is the role of “play”? Is there balance between child-initiated and teacher-directed practices?

    Play is integral to all children’s learning and development. Teachers should provide ongoing appropriate activities for children that encourage learning through play. Early childhood research suggests a balance between child-initiated and teacher-directed activities that are purposeful and intentional. The social-emotional development foundations provide guidance on the role of play in children’s learning.

  • How do the preschool learning foundations and frameworks relate to the K-12 system?

    All too often, children entering school for the first time as kindergarteners are already lagging behind their classmates. This disadvantage, called the school readiness gap, can affect them socially and academically long past kindergarten. Studies show that closing the school readiness gap will help to close the achievement gap. High-quality preschools, guided by the preschool learning foundations and frameworks, can help achieve that goal. Those preschool programs that strengthen children’s readiness for school operate with a more optimal understanding about what children need to learn before they start school. The preschool foundations, frameworks, and the aligned DRDP (2010) and DRDP (2015) will provide the detail and a developmental continuum to assist quality programs prepare children for transitional kindergarten and their ability to be successful in grades K-3.

  • How are foundations aligned to California’s content standards for kindergarten?

    The Alignment of the California Preschool Learning Foundations with Key Early Education Resources, second edition (print format only) illustrates how the preschool foundations align with California state Kindergarten content standards, the common core state standards, the infant toddler foundations and the Head Start Early Learning Outcomes Framework.

  • Will foundations be used to keep track of children’s progress?

    No. The foundations should not be used as a tracking tool, since they are not an assessment. Foundations should be used by teachers and parents to guide expectations, instruction, planning, and professional development so that all children can be ready for school. To assess children’s developmental progress in these domains, early care and education professionals are encouraged to use the DRDP.

  • Do the foundations require that teachers focus on teaching skills so children can pass a test?

    No. Programs should provide high-quality, age-appropriate preschool experiences for children. Teaching young children to pass tests is not developmentally appropriate. The foundations, as well as the examples listed in the foundations publications, are not provided as discrete skills. They describe children’s typical knowledge and skills that teachers need to intentionally plan for as they design and create their curriculum and learning activities. Guidance is provided in the preschool curriculum framework publications (volumes 1, 2, and 3) on curriculum planning and teaching strategies to ensure optimal learning and development for all children.

  • Have the foundations been adopted by the State Board of Education (SBE)?

    No. The State Board of Education (SBE) oversees and adopts policies, regulations, and guidance for kindergarten through grade 12. Preschool education is not under the jurisdiction of the SBE, but is by statute and regulation the responsibility of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. The State Superintendent of Public Instruction has approved the foundations, because he oversees the work of the ELCD at the California Department of Education.

  • Does the state require programs to use one commercial curriculum?

    No. The CDE does not approve texts, materials, or particular curriculum for preschool programs. These are all local decisions. The curriculum framework will provide guidance for using the foundations in program planning, instructional strategies and professional development.

  • How do the Preschool Learning Foundations relate to the Prekindergarten Learning and Development Guidelines? Will the Prekindergarten Learning and Development Guidelines be revised?

    The foundations describe competencies—knowledge and skills—that most children can be expected to exhibit in a high-quality program as they complete their first and second year of preschool. The Prekindergarten Learning and Development Guidelines (2000) is replaced by the California Preschool Program Guidelines (Fall 2014), which provides guidance to early care and education administrators on how to develop high-quality preschool programs to support children’s optimal learning and development. This new publication is aligned with the preschool learning foundations and includes two featured chapters: 1) Dual Language Learners, and 2) Using Technology and Interactive Media with Preschool Aged Children.

  • How do the English-language development foundations relate to the Preschool English Language Learners (PEL) Resource Guide (Title: Preschool English Learners: Principles and Practices to Promote Language, Literacy, and Learning)?

    The English-language development (ELD) foundations describe what children typically demonstrate at three different levels of English-language development. The Preschool English Learners (PEL) Resource Guide reinforces the information in the introduction to the ELD foundations, and includes additional material about family and community language practices, simultaneous second language acquisition, and supporting the English-language learner with special needs.

  • Does the CDE provide guidance on how to determine if a child is an English learner?

    No. The CDE has not adopted or recommended a formal process or instrument to determine who is a preschool English learner. English learners are children whose families use a language other than English at home and whose primary or first language is a language other than English. Families are the best source of information concerning preschool children’s early experiences with language learning. If the family reports that a preschool child’s primary language is other than English, the child is considered an English learner, that is, a dual language learner.

  • Does the CDE provide guidance on how to assess and monitor children's progress on the preschool English-language development foundations?

    The DRDP (2015) is aligned with the California Preschool Learning Foundations, Volumes 1-3. As part of alignment, four measures were developed for use with preschool age children and focus on the English-language development (ELD) of children whose home language is not English. These measures allow preschool teachers to observe and track children’s progress in reaching the competencies described in the preschool ELD foundations. English learners may demonstrate their competence in any of the DRDP measures using their home language or English.

  • California Preschool Learning Foundations - Child Development (CA Dept of Education) (2024)


    What is the purpose of the CA preschool learning Foundations? ›

    The California Preschool Learning Foundations outline key knowledge and skills that most children can achieve when provided with the kinds of interactions, instruction, and environments that research has shown to promote early learning and development.

    What are the California preschool Foundations intended to be? ›

    The California Preschool Learning Foundations are designed to promote an understanding of young children's development. The Foundations describe competencies—knowledge and skills— that most children can be expected to exhibit in a high-quality preschool program.

    Which of the following are domains of the CA preschool learning Foundations? ›

    The preschool learning foundations presented in this document cover the following four domains or areas of emphasis:
    • Social-Emotional Development.
    • Language and Literacy.
    • English-Language Development (for English learners)
    • Mathematics.

    How many domains are in the California preschool learning Foundations? ›

    These foundations focus on four domains: social-emotional development, language and literacy, English-language development, and mathematics. They provide a comprehensive understanding of what children learn in these four domains.

    What is the most important foundation of early childhood education? ›

    Socialization: A Key Component to Early Childhood Education

    In a preschool setting, children learn crucial skills like listening, sharing, and taking turns with others. In school, pre-school teachers will use songs, games, stories, and more to teach children how to interact.

    What is the importance of learning foundation? ›

    A quality foundation education can help students thrive and unlock their full potential. The foundation phase is where they learn and develop valuable life skills that will help them in the real world, including, Social and emotional coping skills. Collaboration.

    What is the difference between preschool and pre-K in California? ›

    The biggest difference between Preschool and Pre-k is the age difference. Preschool typically ranges between 2 ½ and 5 ½ years old depending on each school's enrollment requirements. Pre-K focuses on children between 4 and 5 years old.

    What is the new preschool program in California? ›

    California State Preschool Program (CSPP) is an age and developmentally appropriate program designed to facilitate the transition to kindergarten for three (3) and four (4) old children in educational development, health services, social services, nutritional services, parent education and parent participation.

    What are the four foundations of early childhood? ›

    How Does Learning Happen? is organized around four foundational conditions that are important for children to grow and flourish: Belonging, Well-Being, Engagement, and Expression.

    What are the 7 domains of preschool child development? ›

    The student is viewed Holistically through Seven Domains: spiritual, mental, social, emotional, creative, natural, and physical.

    What are the 4 developmental domains in preschool? ›

    All domains of child development—physical development, cognitive development, social and emotional development, and linguistic development (including bilingual or multilingual development), as well as approaches to learning—are important; each domain both supports and is supported by the others.

    What are the five 5 development domains in early childhood education explain in details? ›

    “Those domains are social, emotional, physical, cognitive and language.” The five critical domains inform the JBSA CDPs' approach to early childhood education, but they also can provide a blueprint for parents as they facilitate their children's development.

    How many domains are covered in the California preschool learning Foundations have three volumes? ›

    There are 3 volumes of the preschool foundations, covering 9 domains. The California Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume One covers Social-Emotional Development, Language and Literacy, English-Language Development, and Mathematics.

    What are the 4 domains in the classroom? ›

    Danielson's Framework for Teaching

    Danielson divides the complex activity of teaching into twenty-two components clustered into four domains of teaching responsibility: (1) planning and preparation, (2) the classroom environment, (3) instruction, and (4) professional responsibilities.

    What are the three domains in every classroom system? ›

    It is hence important for teachers to ensure that the three (3) domains of learning which include cognitive (thinking), affective (emotions or feeling) and Psychomotor (Physical or kinesthetic) to be achieved.

    What are the three foundational needs of all children? ›

    Kids must feel safe and sound, with their basic survival needs met: shelter, food, clothing, medical care and protection from harm.

    What are three challenges facing early childhood education today? ›

    That's why we're breaking down the most prominent issues in early childhood education and how you can best tackle them.
    • Workplace burnout. ...
    • Mental health concerns. ...
    • Lack of resources. ...
    • Low levels of compensation. ...
    • Heightened safety concerns. ...
    • Ever-evolving technologies. ...
    • Lack of parent engagement and communication.
    Dec 20, 2022

    Why are the first 5 years of a child's life so important? ›

    The early years of a child's life are very important for later health and development. One of the main reasons is how fast the brain grows starting before birth and continuing into early childhood.

    What is taught in foundations of education? ›

    Foundations of Education refers to a broadly-conceived field of educational study that derives its character and methods from a number of academic disciplines, combinations of disciplines, and area studies, including: history, philosophy, sociology, anthropology, religion, political science, economics, psychology, ...

    What are examples of foundational skills? ›

    Reading a manual, listening to instructions, writing a memo, and working well in a team are all examples of using foundational skills on the job.

    What is benefit of foundation training? ›

    By strengthening muscles at the back of your body, every exercise in foundation training aims to lengthen and loosen those at the front. Decompressing your spine through foundation training has a positive effect on your posture. All this helps you to stand taller, with power and confidence.

    Does California pay for preschool? ›

    California has three main publicly funded preschool programs—the California State Preschool Program (CSPP), Head Start, and Transitional Kindergarten. Other publicly funded programs serve a broader age range, typically ages 0-12, by providing vouchers for some low-income working families to obtain care.

    Is preschool mandatory in California? ›

    Since school is mandatory for six-year-old students, parents and guardians must enroll their children in school once they reach the age of six (EC Section 48200). It is a local decision, with parental input, whether the six-year-old student will be enrolled in kindergarten or first grade.

    Is pre-K mandatory in California? ›

    Children are only required to attend school in California once they turn 6. Until that age, it is up to parents to decide whether to enroll their children in kindergarten or preschool or keep them at home.

    What is the average pay for a preschool teacher in California? ›

    How much does a Preschool Teacher make in California? The average Preschool Teacher salary in California is $42,230 as of March 28, 2023, but the range typically falls between $38,130 and $48,270.

    How many hours a day is preschool in California? ›

    The California State Preschool Program defines a full-day program as one that lasts at least 6.5 hours. Program lengths vary, but are often not long enough to cover the hours that working parents need care for their children. That is especially the case if a parent works a regular eight-hour day.

    What is the income limit for preschool in California? ›

    Families must be income eligible to apply. Income limits are based on monthly gross pay, before taxes or deductions.
    State Fiscal Year 2022-2023.
    Family SizeFamily Monthly IncomeFamily Yearly Income
    7 more rows

    What are the five foundational theories of child development? ›

    They are (1) maturationist, (2) constructivist, (3) behaviorist, (4) psychoanalytic, and (5) ecological. Each theory offers interpretations on the meaning of the children's development and behavior.

    What is the basic foundation for the development of a child? ›

    Relationships: the foundation of child development

    Children's relationships affect all areas and stages of their development. In fact, nurturing relationships are the foundation of healthy child development. Through warm, responsive relationships, your child learns vital information about themselves and their world.

    What are the five building blocks of early childhood design? ›

    And the different ways young students learn demand a very different type of learning environment — one built on the foundational elements of: Sensory Learning, Movement, Imagination, Nature and Empathy.

    What are the 6 domains of ECCD checklist? ›

    Children are monitored according to seven domains: gross motor, fine motor, self-help, receptive language, expressive language, cognitive and socio-emotional.

    What are the three major domains of child development? ›

    This field of psychology is studied by developmental psychologists. They view development as a lifelong process that can be studied scientifically across three developmental domains: physical, cognitive development, and psychosocial.

    What are the 5 child domains? ›

    A child's starting point at birth can be positively moulded and shaped by the quality of the environment through the five domains – physical, cognitive, social, emotional, and language.

    What are the 4 types of child development? ›

    Children grow and develop rapidly in their first five years across the four main areas of development. These areas are motor (physical), language and communication, cognitive and social/emotional.

    What are the 5 areas of development? ›

    The Five Areas of Development is a holistic approach to learning for Cerebral, Emotional, Physical, Social and Spiritual development. The pace at which the world is changing and will change is unprecedented. During the Pandemic, we saw how quickly established norms of life disappeared.

    What are the four 4 stages of development? ›

    Piaget's stages of development describe how children learn as they grow up. It has four distinct stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. Each stage has different milestones and skills.

    What are piles in early childhood education? ›

    The acronym PILES stands for – physical, intellectual, language, emotional, social. These categories each represent a series of broad skills that children learn as they grow.

    What are the 4 developmental domains that most child development textbooks use? ›

    Each child develops at their own pace, and many factors, including age, genetics, and the environment can affect how and when a child develops. There are four main domains of a child's development: physical, cognitive, language, and social-emotional.

    What are the domains of teaching preschool? ›

    The four domains of early childhood education are social/emotional, cognitive, motor, and language and literacy. These domains are important because they all contribute to the child's development in one way or another.

    What are the four 4 domains in Bloom's Taxonomy? ›

    A revision of Bloom's taxonomy

    There are four levels on the knowledge dimension: factual, conceptual, procedural, and metacognitive.

    What are the 4 pillars of learning to the 3 domains of teaching learning? ›


    The four pillars of Education for the 21st century that Jacques Delors (2001) refers to UNESCO, in the form of a report, comprises: Learning to Know, Learning to do, Learning to Live and Learning to Be.

    What are the four classroom elements? ›

    • Differentiated instruction is based on modification of four elements: content, process,
    • product, and affect/learning environment. This modification is guided by the.
    • teacher‟s understanding of student needs—the students‟ readiness, interests, and.
    • learning profile.

    What are the 3 domains of Bloom's taxonomy? ›

    Bloom's taxonomy was proposed by an educational psychologist Bloom and his colleagues in 1956 in which three domains of learning were identified. The domains included cognitive (mental), affective (emotional/feelings/attitude) and psychomotor (physical ability) skills.

    What are the 3 learning objectives? ›

    There are three main types of learning objectives: cognitive, psychomotor, and affective. Cognitive objectives focus on mental skills or knowledge and are common in school settings. Learning objectives written with the ABCD approach have four components: the audience, behavior, condition, and degree.

    What is Bloom's cognitive domain? ›

    Cognitive Domain. The cognitive domain (Bloom, 1956) involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills.

    What is the purpose of the California preschool and K 12 ELD standards? ›

    California State Content Standards

    The ELA/Literacy Standards help ensure that all students are literate and college- and career-ready no later than the end of high school. The ELA/Literacy Standards set requirements not only for ELA, but also for literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects.

    What is the California Foundations? ›

    Top Giving Foundations: CA
    Foundation NameTotal Annual Giving
    California Community Foundation$170,444,478
    The California Endowment$155,964,525
    Lucille Packard Foundation for Children's Health$150,331,099
    The San Francisco Foundation$149,649,862
    36 more rows

    What is the purpose of the English language development foundations and recommended curriculum strategies? ›

    These foundations are intended to assist adults in planning activities to help dual language learners gain the knowledge and skills necessary in all domains of the California preschool learning foundations.

    What is the aim of the preschool education Programme in the USA? ›

    Their aim, typically, is to help young children to take advantage of learning experiences, often with the goal of compensating those children who have experienced early deprivation and may have special needs, and aid in their becoming "ready to learn." Many programs focus on children who come from poor families and ...

    Which is the main objective of the K to 12 program? ›

    The K to 12 Program covers Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of Junior High School, and two years of Senior High School [SHS]) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, ...

    What are the 5 ELD standards? ›

    The five WIDA ELD Standards are organized into: • Four language domains: Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing; Six language proficiency levels: 1-Entering, 2-Beginning, 3-Developing, 4-Expanding, 5-Bridging, and 6-Reaching; Five grade-level clusters: PreK–K, 1–2, 3–5, 6–8, and 9–12.

    What should pre K students know? ›

    What Your Child Should Know by the End of Preschool
    • Identify name in print.
    • State first and last name.
    • Identify letters in name.
    • Sort objects by color, shape and size.
    • Understand sequencing (first, middle, last)
    • Rote count to 10.
    • Demonstrate one to one correspondence.
    • Count out objects from 1-5.

    How many foundations are there in California? ›

    There are 22,365 foundations giving to nonprofits in California. Combined, these foundations have assets of $747 Billion.

    What age does preschool start in California? ›

    California State Preschool Program (Ages 3-5)

    What are the 3 stages of the ELD standards? ›

    The CA ELD Standards define three proficiency levels—Emerging, Expanding, and Bridging*—to describe the stages of English language development through which ELs are expected to progress as they improve their abilities in listening, speaking, reading, and writing English.

    What are the 5 early literacy skills? ›

    The Every Child Ready to Read program encourages parents to interact with their children using the five practices of early literacy: singing, talking, reading, writing, and playing.

    What is the difference between ELD and ELA? ›

    Instruction across the strands of ELA/literacy (Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening, and Language) and the parts of ELD (Interacting in Meaningful Ways, Learning About How English Works, and Using Foundational Skills) focuses on Meaning Making, Language Development, Effective Expression, Content Knowledge, and ...

    What are the 4 key areas of development in ECE? ›

    All the areas of development and learning - physical, social and emotional, and mental - are important, and are closely connected. Children's development and learning in one area influence and are influenced by what takes place in other areas.


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